Separation - FAQs
Q: If my spouse cheated, does Canadian law have a way to punish this bad behavior?
If your relationship is ending because you have discovered your spouse cheated on you, it is natural that you may feel shocked, confused, angry, hurt, and even vengeful. But the family law system in Canada is not in place to deal with these feelings, or to judge your spouse’s conduct (or your own).
The purpose of family law is only to deal with your separation or divorce and any related issues, such as spousal support or child custody. The system is what is referred to as “no fault,” and does not take conduct between the spouses into consideration when making decisions related to separation or divorce.
If you wish to pursue a divorce, then you will have to establish that the marriage has broken down. The most common way of doing this is though a one-year separation agreement. But you can also establish marriage breakdown by showing adultery. If you establish that your spouse has committed adultery, then the court will grant a divorce immediately rather than forcing you to wait for a one-year separation. However, that is the only difference between applying for a divorce following a one-year separation and applying for one as a result of adultery. The court will not take the adulterous conduct into consideration when making any other determinations relating to your matter. In other words, the conduct of your spouse is irrelevant, except in that it establishes your entitlement to a divorce.
So, if you discovered your spouse cheated on you, should you seek divorce on the grounds of adultery or simply separate and wait one year to apply for divorce?
Many couples are drawn to the idea of pursuing a divorce based on adultery. If the adulterous spouse is willing to admit to their conduct in court, then this route can be beneficial to you because it allows for quicker divorce. You may feel somewhat vindicated by having seen your spouse labeled an adulterer by a court of law. However, if your spouse does not wish to admit to adultery and consent to divorce on these grounds, then you will have to litigate the issue and prove the adultery in court. Such a private act can be difficult to prove, and attempting to do so can lead to extensive legal costs and excessive time spent in the legal system. It may be quicker, cheaper, and no less satisfying to simply enter into a separation agreement, focus on moving on with your life, and apply to the court for a divorce one year later.
Q: Should I leave the matrimonial home?
NOTE: The matrimonial home is defined under the Family Law Act as any home the spouses were ordinarily occupying as a family residence at the time of separation. The matrimonial home refers to the home shared by two people who are married to each other, it does not refer to property shared by cohabiting or common law couples. See the article Common-law Separation for information about what to do if you are considering leaving the home you share with your common-law partner.
It is inadvisable to leave the matrimonial home unless remaining in the home is detrimental to the safety and welfare of you or your children. Leaving the matrimonial home may impact your ability to possess the home or gain custody of your children. If there are children of the relationship and you move out of the home, you may be creating a new status quo with respect to parenting arrangements and schedule. That schedule may impact the Final schedule ordered by a court.
Both parties have an equal right to remain in the home, regardless of whose name is on title. An equal right to the possession of the home and its contents means that a court can make temporary orders for exclusive possession of the matrimonial home under the Family Law Act. When making an order for exclusive possession of the home, the court will consider the best interests of the children as paramount, along with the financial position of the parties, and any instances of domestic violence affecting the safety and wellbeing of all parties involved.
See the Separation article The Threat of Family Violence for more information for what to do if you feel it is no longer safe for you to remain in the home, whether it is the matrimonial home or a home you share with your common law partner. For more information on the unique treatment of the matrimonial home under the law, see the Division of Property article on The Matrimonial Home.
Q: What should I do before I tell my partner I want to separate or divorce?
If you have exhausted all reasonable efforts to reconcile, before telling your spouse or partner you wish to separate or divorce, take the following precautions:
- Have support measures in place – consider counseling for both you and your children. In cases of domestic violence, ensure you have a safe place to go, and sufficient financial resources to provide the basic necessities.
- Prepare documents for financial disclosure – these documents are necessary when calculating support and equalization payments. Obtain up-to-date account statements for all assets including: property, investments, RSPs, inheritances, large financial gifts and bank accounts along with Notices of Assessment for the past 3 years (available from Canada Revenue Agency).
- Maintain the financial status quo: do not deplete joint bank accounts, or abuse joint credit accounts. Courts have deemed such actions to be unconscionable and may resort to punitive measures against you.
- Ensure you have your original marriage certificate (this is required in order obtain a divorce order).
- Change passwords and pin numbers on all your financial and social media accounts, as well as your email in general, to ensure continued privacy.
- Consult a lawyer regarding changing the beneficiary of your will. Also update your Power of Attorney.
- Consult insurance companies regarding changing of beneficiaries for any life insurance policies you may have.
See the article Things to do BEFORE you Separate for more detailed information on these points.
It is prudent to meet with a lawyer prior to telling your spouse or partner you wish to separate. A lawyer is your best resource in navigating the separation agreement process, particularly when important issues such as custody and support are relevant to your matter. Even if you choose not to use fully comprehensive legal representation, the Feldstein Family Law Group offers several unbundled services including consultation and representation at key court appearances.
Q: Can we write our own separation agreement?
In order to produce a legally binding document, a separation agreement must comply with provincial statutes. In Ontario, s. 54 of the Family Law Act allows former spouses and cohabitants to enter into an agreement to settle their respective rights and obligations, including:
- Ownership or division of property;
- Support obligations;
- The right to direct the education and moral training of their children;
- The right to custody of and access to their children; and
- Any other matters in the settlement of their affairs.
The key term is agreement. Cooperation in mapping out the terms of separation can potentially reduce costs. Drafting a separation agreement allows parties to control the particulars of their circumstances rather than abiding by the final judgment of a judge who is a non-invested party.
It is inadvisable to negotiate a separation agreement without legal representation. If you have experienced domestic violence or other forms of power imbalance, seek legal advice prior to negotiating with your former spouse or partner. Having a lawyer draft or advise upon a separation agreement ensures that your legal rights are protected, including your right to honest and complete financial disclosure from the other party.
If you do opt to write your own separation agreement, it is essential that both parties seek independent legal advice from a lawyer and that you exchange full and frank financial disclosure prior to signing. The absence of full disclosure or independent legal advice may lead to a court setting aside the agreement later, upon application of either spouse.
Q: What Are My Legal Rights in Separation?
What are my rights as a separated spouse?
As a separated spouse you may have a variety of rights which depend on different things including whether you were legally married or in a common-law relationship or if you have children. Your rights during a separation are not dependant on whether you are the husband or wife, but rather on circumstances such as whether there are children, where they live and the financial positions of each of the parties.
Once a couple decides to separate there are a number of basic rights that arise:
- You can apply to equalize net family property to apply to obtain possession of or to preserve property on an interim basis
- You can apply for spousal and child support for yourself and your children
- You can apply for decision-making responsibility of the children
- You can apply for visitation or parenting time rights of the children and,
- You can apply to continue to live in the matrimonial home without spouse even if you do not own it
Your rights during a separation may be dependent on your unique circumstances. However, regardless of your circumstances all separated spouses have an equal right to independent legal counsel. Therefore, it is best to consult an experienced family law lawyer to ensure you are aware of all of your rights.
What should you not do in a separation?
When separating there are a number of do’s and don’ts. When separating, you should not allow your spouse to move out of the matrimonial home that you shared with your children without your permission as your spouse may not return the children to the home in the future. Until at least a temporary parenting time and decision-making responsibility regime has been established, neither of you should leave the matrimonial home with the children.
You should avoid discussing your separation in front of the children or anywhere where they could be listening. Additionally, it is important that you avoid arguing or making any negative comments about your spouse to your children as this could have a detrimental impact on them and how they feel about you and your spouse.
You should not threaten your spouse to either them or others during the separation. Separations are difficult and emotional for all parties but when arguing, it is best to walk away until you are able to discuss the matter civilly.
Lastly, you should not change anything financially between you and your spouse as it may leave both or either of you in financial hardship when the money will need to be paid back.
What to do and not to do during a separation is very important and can have long-lasting effects in the future. If you would like to learn more about what you should not be doing when your decide to separate please visit our website or contact any of our experience family law lawyers at Feldstein Family Law Group.
Does a Husband Have to Support His Wife During Separation in Ontario?
Spousal support is not automatically part of a divorce or separation in Ontario. However, the spouse with more income or assets may be required to pay spousal support to the other spouse.
You and your spouse can negotiate spousal support payments as part of a separation agreement. If you cannot agree, a judge will decide how much support and how long a husband should pay for it.
If you and your spouse have separated and your children will reside with your spouse, you may also be required to pay child support to your former spouse. The amount of child support owed will depend on the number of children, where the children reside and the incomes of both parents.
For more information about your legal rights during a separation please visit our website or contact any of our experienced family law lawyers at Feldstein Family Law Group.
See The Anatomy of a Separation Agreement for more information on what types of issues a separation agreement should address.
Andrew Feldstein Founder
Andrew Feldstein graduated from Osgoode Hall Law School in 1992. Prior to focusing exclusively on family law, Andrew’s legal practice covered many different areas, including corporate commercial. One of Andrew’s fundamental objectives is to achieve those goals mutually and collaboratively, as set out by him and his client.
Daphna Schwartz Lawyer
Daphna Schwartz joined Feldstein Family Law Group, P.C. in 2007 as an associate lawyer. She was previously practising family law in the Barrie area. Her practice includes all areas of divorce and family law, including custody and access, child support, spousal support, and property issues. Daphna is also qualified to practise Collaborative Family Law.
Anna Troitschanski Lawyer
Anna Troitschanski joined the team at Feldstein Family Law Group, P.C. in 2012. Prior to that, she practised Family Law at a boutique Newmarket firm. Her experience covers all areas of divorce and family law, including custody and access, child support, spousal support, and division of property.
Nick Slinko Lawyer
Nick Slinko attended York University from 2003 until 2007 where he majored in both Law & Society and Philosophy. Nick graduated in 2007 with an Honours Bachelor of Arts degree. He proceeded to earn a Juris Doctor in Law at the University of Western Ontario in 2011. Nick was Called to the Bar in June of 2012 after completing his Articling term with the Feldstein Family Law Group, P.C. He became an associate with the firm immediately thereafter.
Veronica Yeung Lawyer
Veronica Yeung joined the Feldstein Family Law Group, P.C. as a summer student in 2014 and returned as an articling student in 2015. Following her call to the Ontario Bar in June 2016, Veronica was welcomed to the team as an associate lawyer.
Veronica attended York University for her undergraduate studies and graduated as a member of the Dean’s Honour Roll when she obtained her Bachelor’s degree in Honours Criminology.
Shana Gordon-Katz Lawyer
Shana joined Feldstein Family Law Group P.C. as an articling student in 2017. Following her call to the Ontario Bar in June 2018, Shana was welcomed back to the firm as an associate. While completing her articles, Shana assisted with legal matters covering all areas of family law.
Shana attended the University of Western Ontario for her undergraduate studies, where she graduated as the gold medalist of her program, Honors Specialization in Classical Studies.
Rachel Zweig Lawyer
Rachel joined Feldstein Family Law Group P.C as a Summer Student in 2019 and returned as an Articling Student in 2020-2021. Following her Call to the Ontario Bar in April 2021, Rachel was welcomed back to the firm as an Associate.
Prior to completing her legal studies and obtaining her Juris Doctor at the University of Ottawa, Rachel obtained her Bachelor’s Degree at Ryerson University with a major in English Literature.
Lauren Harvey Associate Lawyer
Lauren joined Feldstein Family Law Group as a Summer Student in 2020 and returned as an Articling Student in 2021-2022. Following her Call to the Ontario Bar in April 2022, Lauren was welcomed back to the firm as an Associate.
Prior to completing her legal studies and obtaining her Juris Doctor at the University of Western Ontario, Lauren obtained her Honour’s Bachelor of Arts Degree at Wilfrid Laurier University majoring in Criminology and minoring in Law and Society.
Quinn Held Associate Lawyer
Quinn spent two years as a Summer Student and then completed her Articling term at a boutique Family Law firm in Orangeville, where she was exposed to various complex Family Law matters. Following her Call to the Bar of Ontario in June 2022, she became an Associate with the Feldstein Family Law Group.
Prior to obtaining her Juris Doctor from the University of Windsor, Quinn obtained her Honour’s Bachelor of Arts Degree at the University of Guelph majoring in Criminal Justice and Public Policy and minoring in International Development.